Gender pay gap, hourly earnings
The indicator is part of the EU Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicator set. It is used to monitor progress towards SDG 5 on gender equality. Indicator also is considered as similar to global SDG indicator 8.5.1 "Average hourly earnings of female and male employees, by occupation, age and persons with disabilities". Furthermore, indicator is part of the impact indicators for Strategic plan 2016–2020 referring to the ten Commission priorities and is included as a secondary indicator in the Social Scoreboard for the European Pillar of Social Rights.
Terms and definitions
Unadjusted gender pay gap
Unadjusted gender pay gap (GPG) represents the difference between average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees and of female paid employees as a percentage of average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees. For example, 8.7% gender pay gap denotes that women on average, earn 8.7% less per hour than men. Conversely, a negative 8.7% gender pay gap denotes that women on average earn 8.7% more than men. Average earnings used for the GPG are calculated as arithmetic means.
Gross wages and salaries (regular costs) in October of the reference year [Structure of Earnings Survey]
It includes only regular costs on October and does not include all irregular payments to employees, i.e., not regularly calculated every month: bonuses and premiums paid for certain time periods not regularly every month, bonuses related to individually or collectively performed work (e.g., irregular bonuses – quarterly, half-year and for longer time period, holiday bonuses; 13th and 14th salary), payment for additional annual leave, additional payment before vocation, leave benefit, compensation for unused leave.
Average hourly gross wages and salaries (regular costs) in October of the reference year [Structure of Earnings Survey]
Average hourly gross wages and salaries (regular costs) in October are calculated by dividing regular costs of calculated gross earnings of employees in October by the sum of hours worked and paid in October.
Part-time employees [Gender pay gap]
Part-time employees (workers) include all the rest, who can be: employees having part-time job (part-time, part-day or part-week) provided for in labour or enterprise contract with employer, or employees actually working part-time (even though it is not provided in labour or enterprise contract), as well as employees not having normal working hours due to the lack of orders or workload.
Private sector includes commercial companies with central or local government capital participation up to 50%, commercial companies of all types without central or local government capital participation, individual merchants, and peasant and fishermen farms with 50 and more employees.
Data collection and statistical processing
Survey method and data source
The unadjusted gender pay gap (GPG) is calculated on the basis of:
- the four-yearly Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) 2006, 2010 and 2014 conducted within the scope required by the SES regulation;
- national estimates based on the national data sources made on the years between the SES, from reference year 2007 onwards, having the same coverage as the SES.
Based on the Eurostat methodological guidelines elaborated, in years when the SES is not carried out, the CSB uses data calculates the indicator by using the available data sources – short-term surveys, administrative data, and combination of various methods. Annual indicator is calculated by ensuring that the methodology used is harmonised with that required for the SES.
All employees working in enterprises engaged in all economic activities, except for agriculture, forestry and fishing, and employing 10 or more persons, as well as economically active in October of the reference year. Target population includes both full-time and part-time employees which on 31 October of the reference year were employed in main or secondary job and received wages or salaries.
The indicator is calculated in line with the EU methodology – aggregate of the economic activities B–S (NACE), excluding section Public administration and defence; Compulsory social sectary (O), as the regulation defines that collection of the data within the survey on this sector is not mandatory.
Number of employees in the sample belonging to economic activities sections B-S (excluding O) according to NACE Rev. 2.
* SES 2014 data
** Data of the State Revenue Service
Average regular hourly gross wages and salaries by gender and other breakdowns are calculated based on the SES results.
The GPG is calculated as follows: GPG = [(average gross hourly earnings of males – average gross hourly earnings of females) / average gross hourly earnings of males] X 100.
In years when survey is not conducted, the indicator is estimated based on the data of the latest survey. Indicator breakdown by economic activity, sector and staff workload is calculated as follows: base period indicator is multiplied by annual change rate which is calculated from short-term indicators on the corresponding time periods. Indicator age groups are calculated based on the State Revenue Service (SRS) data – estimating the indicator in base year (year when the last survey was conducted) and then in current year, afterwards the absolute difference of both values is calculated, and the result is summed up with the base period result.
Data on monthly average and real wages and salaries are compiled, calculated and published by using:
- Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community, Rev. 2 (NACE Rev. 2).
Contact person on methodology