EU-SILC ad-hoc modules
In the survey “European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions” is added supplementary section of questions (module) dedicated to particular subject. Ad-hoc modules are developed each year in order to complement the variables permanently collected in EU-SILC with supplementary variables highlighting unexplored aspects of social inclusion - material deprivation, housing conditions, social and cultural participation, intergenerational transmission of disadvantages, over-indebtedness and financial exclusion, intra-household sharing of resources, wellbeing etc.
Terms and definitions
Number of equivalent consumers in household
Households of various types have different consumption needs and not always they are directly proportional to the number of persons in household.
Three persons do not need three times wider useful floor space and three times more consumer durables. Consumption differs also between children and adults.
This phenomenon hampers comparison of the data among households of various types; therefore equivalence scales are used, as a result data are calculated per number of equivalent consumers in household, and that ensures comparability of the data among various households.
European Statistical System is using so-called "modified OECD* equivalence scale" – it gives weight of 1.0 to the first adult, 0.5 to any other household member aged 14 and over and 0.3 to each child aged less than 14. The number of equivalent consumers in household is acquired by summing the weights given to each household member.
*OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Level of education
Basic education or lower: an individual has not acquired school education or the attained education is lower than primary education; has attained primary education; basic education; vocational basic education; vocational education with pedagogical correction; vocational education after basic education.
Secondary education: an individual has acquired general secondary education; general secondary education after vocational education; vocational secondary education after basic education; vocational secondary education after vocational education; vocational education after general secondary education, vocational secondary education after general secondary education.
Higher education: an individual has acquired first level higher education; academic education (bachelor’s degree) or second level vocational higher education (vocational bachelor’s degree); second level vocational higher education (length of studies – 5 years); academic education (master’s degree) or second level vocational higher education (vocational master’s degree); doctorate degree.
One fifth (20%) of the number of surveyed households grouped in increasing sequence according to the disposable income per one household member.
Median is the middle value of observations arranged in ascending or descending order.
Disposable (net) income
Cash income from labour, employee income in kind received by using company car for private needs estimated in cash, income or losses received from self-employment, received pensions and benefits, regular material assistance from other households, profit from interests of deposits, dividends, shares, income received by children aged under 16, income from property rental, receipts for tax adjustments from State Revenue Service (for business activities, eligible costs–education, medical treatment etc.).
From this total amount of income the following are deducted: real estate tax, amount of money regularly given to other households, amount paid to State Revenue Service due to unpaid or insufficiently paid income tax.
Attitude towards governance and basic rights [EU-SILC survey]
Attitude towards governance and basic rights covers the following dimensions:
- trust in the political system (work of government, Saeima (Parliament), political parties, trade unions, etc. institutions);
- trust in the legal system (opinions and attitudes towards the effectiveness and efficiency of the institutions such as the courts, the fairness of its procedures and decisions, and the extent to which the sentences given out reflect the values and desires of citizens);
- trust in the police.
Respondent is asked to evaluate his/her trust in the respective field of governance and basic rights in a scale from 0 (not at all satisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied).
Formal and informal social participation [EU-SILC survey]
Formal and informal participation includes:
- participation in formal voluntary work (if respondent did any unpaid non-compulsory work for or through an organisation, a formal group or club. It also includes unpaid work for charitable or religious organisations);
- participation in informal voluntary activities (if respondent undertook any informal unpaid activities that were not arranged by any organisation);
- active citizenship (if respondent participated in activities such as participation to the activities of a political party or a local interest group, participation in a public consultation, peaceful protest including signing a petition, participation in a demonstration, writing a letter to a politician, writing a letter to the media).
Dimensions of well-being [EU-SILC survey]
Well-being includes the following dimensions: overall life satisfaction, satisfaction with personal relationships, meaning of life, satisfaction with financial situation, job satisfaction, satisfaction with commuting time (from home to work and back), satisfaction with time use, satisfaction with accommodation, satisfaction with living environment, satisfaction with recreational and green areas.
Respondent is asked to evaluate his/her satisfaction with the respective life area in a scale from 0 (not at all satisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied).
Dimensions of emotional well-being [EU-SILC survey]
Respondents evaluate their emotional state of mind over the past four weeks; they are asked to give information about the following emotional states: being happy, feeling calm and peaceful, feeling down in the dumps, felling downhearted or depressed, being very nervous.
Frequency of being in each of the emotional states is evaluated in a scale from 1 (all the time) to 5 (none of the time).
State of “being very nervous" is characterized by or showing emotional tension, restlessness, agitation, etc. "Feeling down in the dumps" is feeling unhappy, sad or pessimistic over the past four weeks. "Felling downhearted or depressed" emotionally is more intense than "feeling down in the dumps"; this state of psychological wellbeing appears when person is dejected, unhappy or feeling hopeless. Loneliness is characterised by isolation, separation and lack of feeling like belonging somewhere.
Data collection and processing
Survey method and data source
Data are acquired with the help of Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). One of the main study objects of the EU-SILC is annual income of a household – their composition and level.
In order to acquire information four questionnaires were developed: Household Register, Household Questionnaire Form and Individual Questionnaire Form. Each questionnaire has its own aim and information in each questionnaire does not overlap with information in other forms. Fourth form is a module questionnaire that each year aims at researching different theme.
Household Register is questionnaire, which includes general information on each household member. It is mainly demographic information on persons living in the household, as well as on those persons, who have left the household.
Household Questionnaire Form includes questions concerning the household generally. It includes following questions: housing and housing conditions, housing costs, economic situation of the household, total household income, inter-household transfers and agricultural production in household.
Individual Questionnaire Form is filled in on each household member aged 16 and over. It includes questions on employment, income, education and health.
Survey is based also on data of the State Revenue Service on natural persons/taxpayers and State Social Insurance Agency data on state pensions and benefits.
Over the recent years, greater attention is given to the comfort of people as it facilitates social inclusion and integration into the labour market thus having direct impact on well-being.
Module on well-being includes subjects like satisfaction with separate life areas, emotional state of mind, social deprivation, possibility to ask for help if necessary. All questions are asked at individual level (to household members aged 16 and over, not using other response person).
Module "Social and cultural participation and material deprivation"
Module includes subjects like attendance of various cultural events (cinema, live performances, cultural sites, sports events), contacting relatives and friends (getting together or contacting by phone or via social media), receiving help from others, participation in voluntary activities and active citizenship, as well as practice of artistic activities.
All questions are asked at individual level (to household members aged 16 and over).
Module "Health and children’s health"
Module includes subjects like assessment of general health of children, limitation in children activities because of health problems, medical and dental examination or treatment among children, financial burden on medical care and medicines in households, number of visits to general practitioner (family doctor), medical or surgical specialist, dentist, frequency of eating fruit, vegetables or salad, body mass index, and time spent on physical activities (excluding working).
Respondents aged 16 and over give answers to the survey questions about their health by themselves, while information on younger household members is given by adults.
The basic unit of EU-SILC survey is persons living in private households. Survey does not include collective households (old peoples’ homes, boarding schools for disabled children, student hostels, hotels, barracks, hospitals, sanatoriums, prisons, etc.).
During the survey information was obtained on whole household as well as on each household member aged 16 and over. Households belonging to longitudinal section are surveyed for several years (maximum 4 years). In Latvia four-year rotation panel is used and all household members, who in the first survey year were at age of at least 14, are sample respondents.
|Year||Sample size of EU-SILC||Completed questionnaire sets||Individual interviews (persons)||Non-response rate|
|2018||7 972||5 833||10 785||26.8%|
|2017||8 087||6 014||11 304||25,6%|
|2016||8 022||6 042||11 637||24,7%|
|2015||8 008||6 113||11 726||23,7%|
|2014||8 209||6 125||11 929||25,4%|
|2013||8 510||6 309||12 442||25,9%|
|2012||8 572||6 499||12 964||24,2%|
|2011||8 463||6 599||13 503||22,0%|
|2010||8 151||6 255||12 999||23,3%|
|2009||7 610||5 797||12 207||23,8%|
|2008||7 042||5 196||10 910||26,2%|
|2007||6 717||4 471||9 270||33,4%|
|2006||6 018||4 315||9 071||28,3%|
|2005||5 813||3 843||7 913||33,9%|
EU-SILC data are extrapolated on all private household and household members living in these households. Weighting process includes application of design weights, which are corrected by actual response rate. Additional data are calibrated by population sex and age.
In the survey Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) following classifications are used:
- International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08);
- Statistical Classification of Economic Activities (NACE Rev. 2);
- International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED).
Contact person on methodology
Central Statistical Bureau Social Statistics Department