Expenditure on research and development by sector and its financing (mln euro)

Table ID
Most recent data period
Most recent data release
Research and experimental development (R&D)
Any creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications, such as new and improved products (goods/services) and processes (including software research).
Sectors of R&D

Higher education sector (HES) – in compliance with the Frascati Manual §260 the HES includes all universities, colleges of technology and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct control of administrated by or associated with higher education institutions. Frascati Manual ("Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development") is a methodology for collecting and using R&D statistics published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 

Business enterprise sector (BES) – in compliance with the Frascati Manual §200 the BES includes all firms, organisations and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price and to the private non-profit institutions (NPI) mainly serving them.

Government sector (GOV) – in compliance with the Frascati Manual §234 the GOV includes all departments, offices and other bodies which furnish but normally do not sell to the community, those common services, other than higher education, which cannot otherwise be conventionally and economically provided, as well as those that administer the state and the economic and social policy of the community and private NPI’s controlled and mainly financed by government, but not administrated by the higher education sector.

Sources of funding R&D

Abroad – funds received from international organisations or on the basis of international agreements, payments received from abroad.

Business enterprise sector – enterprise’s own funds, payments received from other enterprises etc.

Government sector – state or local government basic or special budget, funds received from foundations financed by the government (incl. grants), own funds of the government sector institutions (from the sale of products or services, leasing of rooms etc.).