Research and experimental development statistics
Data on research and experimental development (R&D) provide information on the number of institutions and enterprises engaged in R&D, R&D personnel and R&D expenditure as well as source of funds thereof.
Concepts and definitions
Research and experimental development (R&D)
Sectors of R&D
Higher education sector (HES) – in compliance with the Frascati Manual §260 the HES includes all universities, colleges of technology and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct control of administrated by or associated with higher education institutions. Frascati Manual ("Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development") is a methodology for collecting and using R&D statistics published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Business enterprise sector (BES) – in compliance with the Frascati Manual §200 the BES includes all firms, organisations and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price and to the private non-profit institutions (NPI) mainly serving them.
Government sector (GOV) – in compliance with the Frascati Manual §234 the GOV includes all departments, offices and other bodies which furnish but normally do not sell to the community, those common services, other than higher education, which cannot otherwise be conventionally and economically provided, as well as those that administer the state and the economic and social policy of the community and private NPI’s controlled and mainly financed by government, but not administrated by the higher education sector.
Sources of funding R&D
Abroad – funds received from international organisations or on the basis of international agreements, payments received from abroad.
Business enterprise sector – enterprise’s own funds, payments received from other enterprises etc.
Government sector – state or local government basic or special budget, funds received from foundations financed by the government (incl. grants), own funds of the government sector institutions (from the sale of products or services, leasing of rooms etc.).
The R&D personnel can be dividend into the following three categories:
- Researchers – scientists (natural persons that have acquired scientific qualification – Doctor of Science and are involved in research activities) and professionals with an academic degree or higher education diploma engaged in basic or applied research or experimental development to create new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, as well as managers and administrators engaged in planning and management of the scientific and technical aspects.
- Technicians and equivalent staff – persons having necessary technical knowledge and experience in one or several fields performing their R&D tasks under the supervision of researchers, and mainly carrying out technical jobs. Technicians and equivalent staff include engineers, technicians, laboratory assistants, technologists, and operators.
- Research supporting staff – persons fulfilling auxiliary functions of the scientifically-technical works (staff of the planning, economic, financial, and scientifically-technical information units, special and scientifically-technical libraries, patent office specialists, archivists, as well as skilled workers assembling, regulating, maintaining and repairing necessary equipment and devices).
In compliance with the requirements of Annex 1, Section 1 of the Commission Implementation Regulation (EU) 995/2012 (of 26 October 2012), starting from 2012, data are compiled on other R&D personnel that includes technicians and equivalent staff and science supporting staff.
Full-time equivalent [R&D]
Full-time equivalent (FTE) corresponds to the work done by one person throughout the whole year. Thus, if an individual usually devotes 40% of his/her time to the R&D activities and the remaining time to another activity, e.g., teaching, administrative work at the university or consultations, this person should be classified as 0.4 FTE only.
Data collection and statistical processing
Survey method and data source
Data on research and experimental development in higher education sector are acquired with the help of full-scope survey. Data source is CSB annual "Report on implementation of scientific work in higher education institutions, scientific institutions under their supervision" (statistical report form 1-research).
Data on research and experimental development in business enterprise sector are acquired with the help of sample survey. Data source is CSB annual "Report on implementation of scientific work in business enterprise sector" (statistical report form 2-research and experimental development).
Data on research and experimental development in government sector are acquired with the help of full-scope survey. Data source is CSB annual "Report of government sector scientific institutions on implementation of scientific work" (statistical report form 3-research).
Data on research and experimental development in higher education sector are acquired from higher education institutions and scientific institutions under their supervision.
Data on research and experimental development in business enterprise sector are acquired from economically active statistical units – businesses (individual merchants and commercial companies) the main economic activity of which meets the Sections A–T of the NACE Rev. 2. The 3rd and 4th digit of the CATTU classification for all enterprises included in the target population is 10, 51, 55, 57, 59, 61, 62, 71, 73, 74, or 90. Enterprises submitting statistical report forms 1-research, 3-research and 4-research do not belong to the survey target population. Target population does not include enterprises having note B, K, L, N, T, V, or P in the Business Register; enterprise branches (3rd and 4th digit of the CATTU is 11, 52, 56, or 80) and Section 9603 of the NACE Rev. 2 (funeral and related activities).
Data on research and experimental development in government sector are acquired from organisations registered with the Register of Scientific Institutions activities of which mainly are financed from the State budget (excluding institutions that are included in higher education sector), as well as institutions engaged in research.
Data are collected and published using following classifications:
- Statistical Classification of Economic Activities (NACE Rev. 1.1) (until the end of 2007);
- Statistical Classification of Economic Activities (NACE Rev. 2) (from 2008);
- Classification of Administrative Territories and Territorial Units (CATTU);
- Nomenclature for the analysis and comparison of scientific programmes and Budget (NABS 2007);
- Fields of science and technology (Frascati Manual).
Contact person on methodology
Social Statistics Data Compilation and Analysis Section