Crime and violence
- Table of content
- 1) Violence Victims
- 2) Gender-Based Violence
- 3) Social Rehabilitation of Violence Victims
- 4) Crime
- 5) Gender Equality Index – Violence
Studies show that approximately each third Latvian female has suffered from domestic violence during her lifetime, while males mainly are subjected to violence outside family. To evaluate spread and causes of violence carefully, EU is planning to conduct a survey on gender-based violence in 2020–2021.
Males more often become victims of aggravated assault – in 2018, totally 123 aggravated assault victims were registered, of which 96 males and 27 females. Women, in turn, more frequently become victims of sexual violence, including rape, leading to depravity, etc. sexual crimes. The statistics covers only registered crimes, therefore actual number of sexual violence victims may be higher. In 2018, 148 sexual violence victims were registered in Latvia (126 females and 22 males).
Knowing the considerable influence of violence against women, EU countries still face lack of general data characterising widespread and core of this issue. Irrespective of various EU-level measures that can help in eliminating gender-based violence, results of the research Violence against Women: an EU-Wide Survey conducted by European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and published in March 2014 show that large part of female violence victims report neither to the police nor to the support organisations for violence victims. In Latvia, 38.6 % of women have suffered from physical or sexual violence since the age of 15, while 6.3 % – during the past 12 months; 32.1 % of these females never told anyone about the violence cases, which is more than twice often than on average in the EU. In Latvia, 60 % of women have been subjected to psychological violence used by current or former partner and 14 % have witnessed stalking.
Social Rehabilitation of Violence Victims
Since January 2015, a state-funded social rehabilitation of adult violence victims is available (prior, only rehabilitation services to children aged under 18 were available). As of January 2015, social rehabilitation is also provided to perpetrators.
In 2019, in total 429 persons (of which 19 males) underwent such social rehabilitation in Latvia. Women the most often have suffered from emotional violence (207 cases), as well as combination of several types of violence (159 cases, including 132 cases of physical violence and 11 cases of both physical and sexual violence). Men more commonly have suffered from emotional violence (13 cases out of 19).
Dominance of one gender in something may indicate on consequences of gender inequality in society. Clear predominance of males can be observed both in the number of offenders and in the number of convicted persons. This indicates on the need to solve high number of offences in the society, reason for what may be related to different experience between males and females and gender inequality in various aspects of life. In 2019, 86.9 % of all offenders in Latvia were males. During the last 10 years this trend has remained similar. Dominance of males was observed in all kinds of offences – the highest it was in rape (97.7 % were males), hooliganism (95.3 %), robbery (92.2 %). During the last 10 years the number of convicted persons in prisons has reduced. Significant drop was in reduction of the number of males, where, as compared to 2010, the number of males has halved, but of females – only by a fifth. In 2019, 90.7 % of all imprisoned persons were males.
Gender Equality Index – Violence
Additionally to the six domains of the Gender Equality Index – Power, Time, Knowledge, Health, Money, and Work – European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) is working on the domain Violence which provides a set of indicators that can help to monitor the extent of the most common and documented forms of violence against women (incidence, severity and reporting). Unlike other domains, the domain of violence does not measure differences between women and men but examines and analyses women’s experiences of violence. Opposite to the other index domains, where 1 stands for absolute gender inequality and 100 for full gender equality, in the domain Violence the rating 1 indicates that violence in the country does not exist, and 100 means that violence against women is a widespread problem. Latvian rating in the domain Violence accounts for 38.2 points, which is higher than the EU average (27.5). Compared to other EU countries, women in Latvia more often suffer from the consequences of physical violence – 84 % of the females who had been victims of physical and/or sexual violence since the age of 15 had suffered from violence-related health problems, psychological violence used by current or former partner, as well as less often reported violence act.
Last edited: 07.10.2020.