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Life-long learning increases our competitiveness in the labour market. Irrespective of both genders having equal access to the education, there still are some differences between the educational attainment thereof.
Share of males and females having higher education (per cent)
Equal earnings are one of the key gender equality indicators, since they serve as the basis for benefits and pensions received in future. Regardless the fact that gender equality in the European Union (EU) is stipulated by several regulatory enactments and Latvian legislation provides for equal rights to both genders, gender inequality in the labour market may be observed.
Gender pay gap (earnings received by females, compared to EUR 1 received by males)
Gender equality may be achieved by incorporating it into all areas of life. Unequal division of family duties may lead to limited opportunities to integrate into the labour market and imbalanced size of various benefits received. National policies and European directives also should facilitate equality by working out mechanisms reducing social inequality and poverty risks. A Work-Life Balance Directive supporting a work-life balance for parents and carers, addressing women’s underrepresentation on the labour market, and encouraging more equal sharing of parental leave between men and women adopted by the EU Council in 2019 is a positive example to be mentioned.
Number of persons receiving benefit for nursing an ill child by sex (number of recipients)
Legislation of Latvia ensures equal rights to both genders, still representation of males and females in leading positions is not equal. The greatest differences may be observed in politics and judicial system.
Number of females elected to the Parliament of Latvia (per cent)
Election of 2011
Election of 2014
Election of 2018
Studies show that approximately each third Latvian female has suffered from domestic violence during her lifetime, while males mainly are subjected to violence outside family. To evaluate spread and causes of violence carefully, EU is planning to conduct a survey on gender-based violence in 2020–2021.
Violence victims in 2018 (per cent)
Victims of sexual violence, incl. rape
Victims of intentional homicide
Victims of intentional aggravated assault
Healthy lifestyle and care for own health allows us to increase life quality. In Latvia, life expectancy among males is shorter than among females, which is related to both lifestyle and unsafe conduct (accidents are the third most common death cause among males).
Life expectancy at birth (years)