Material deprivation is defined as circumstances denying households’ access to certain material goods. These circumstances are lack of money, unsatisfactory housing conditions and enforced refusal from use of durables. Data are collected additionally to monetary poverty and income inequality indicators, with an aim to estimate poverty and social exclusion more comprehensively.

Material deprivation indicators are available at household level and individual level. To improve comparability of the data with other European Union (EU) Member States and information published by the statistical office of the European Union (Eurostat), indicators are published also at individual level in compliance with the Eurostat methodology.

Definitions

Share of persons with an equivalised disposable income below 60% of the national median equivalised disposable income.

In EU-SILC survey material deprivation is defined as circumstances denying households’ access to certain material goods. These circumstances are lack of money, unsatisfactory housing conditions and enforced refusal from use of durables.

Material deprivation is observed by asking questions on three dimensions of material exclusion: Economic Strain, Unsatisfactory Housing Conditions; Enforced Lack of Durables. 

Economic strain is determined by asking respondents to assess household’s ability to cover the following costs:

  • utility costs, rent and credit payments (including loans and purchase instalments for purchase of goods);
  • keeping the dwelling warm;
  • unexpected expenses covered from own resources;
  • a meal with meat, chicken or fish or equivalent vegetarian meal every second day; 
  • one week annual holiday away from home. 

Households which give a negative answer to at least two questions are considered to be subjected to economic strain.

Is observed to households, which due to lack of money have no access to private needs:

  • telephone (including mobile phone);
  • colour TV;
  • washing machine;
  • car.

It is considered that household has enforced lack of durables if it due to lack of money has no access to at least one of goods mentioned before.

Material deprivation rate: share of persons facing severe financial constraints, defined as the proportion of people lacking at least 3 items among the 9 following: the household could not afford: 1) to face unexpected expenses, 2) one week annual holiday away from home, 3) to pay for arrears (mortgage or rent, utility bills or hire purchase instalments), 4) a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day, 5) to keep home adequately warm, or could not afford (even if wanted to): 6) a washing machine, 7) a colour TV, 8) a telephone, 9) a personal car.

Several persons living in one dwelling and sharing expenditures or one person having separate housekeeping.

One fifth (20%) of the number of surveyed households grouped in increasing sequence according to the disposable income per one household member.

Severe material deprivation is defined as the proportion of people lacking at least 4 items among the 9 following: the household could not afford: 1) to face unexpected expenses, 2) one week annual holiday away from home, 3) to pay for arrears (mortgage or rent, utility bills or hire purchase instalments), 4) a meal with meat, chicken or fish every second day, 5) to keep home adequately warm, or could not afford (even if wanted to): 6) a washing machine, 7) a colour TV, 8) a telephone, 9) a personal car.

Are characterized with assistance of following housing quality questions:

  • leaking roof, damp walls, floors, roof or foundation of house, or rot in window frames or floor;
  • too dark, not enough daylight;
  • no bath or shower;
  • no flushing toilet.

It is considered that household has unsatisfactory housing conditions if it indicates at least one housing problem mentioned before.

Data availability

Dissemination format and Release calendar

Theme Reference period Actual release datesort icon Remarks
Material deprivation
  • 2016
28.04.2017
Material deprivation
  • 2015
29.04.2016
Material deprivation
  • 2014
30.04.2015
Material deprivation
  • 2013
09.04.2014
Material deprivation
  • 2011
17.04.2012

Data are published 13 months after the end of the reference period. Material deprivationHousehold level, Individual level

News Releases


Date Title
19.12.2017 Household disposable income in 2016

Publications

Download CSB publications on various time periods (starting from 2007) in section E-publications and subscribe for paper publications in section Publications.

Data on material deprivation are published also in the monthly bulletins and in the statistical yearbooks.

Theme Title Release datesort icon ZIP/PDF
EU-SILC survey Income and living conditions in Latvia in 2016 09.05.2017
EU-SILC survey Income and living conditions in Latvia in 2015 05.05.2016
EU-SILC survey Material deprivation in Latvia in 2015 (only in Latvian) 13.04.2016
EU-SILC survey Income and living conditions in Latvia 2014 08.05.2015
EU-SILC survey Material deprivation in Latvia 2013 (only in Latvian) 30.06.2014
EU-SILC survey Income and living conditions in Latvia 2013 26.05.2014
EU-SILC survey Material deprivation in Latvia in 2012 (only in Latvian) 28.06.2013
EU-SILC survey Income and living conditions in Latvia 2012 11.06.2013
EU-SILC survey Material Deprivation of Latvia in 2011 (only in Latvian) 20.04.2012
EU-SILC survey Material Deprivation of Latvia in 2010 (only in Latvian) 30.06.2011
EU-SILC survey Material Deprivation of Latvia in 2009 (only in Latvian) 30.06.2010
EU-SILC survey Material Deprivation of Latvia in 2007 (only in Latvian) 30.06.2009

Classifications

In the survey Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) following classifications are used:

  1. Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in European Community (NACE Rev. 2);
  2. International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED);
  3. International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08).

A Classification Catalogue with classification codes and their explanations has been published on the CSB website.

Customised data sets

If you would like to obtain statistical data that are not available in publications or in the CSB online data base, please send us an information request:
 - postal mail: 1 Lāčplēša Street, Riga, Latvia, LV-1301;
 - e-mail: info [at] csb [dot] gov [dot] lv;
 - visiting Information centre.

Read more

Remark

Material deprivation indicators can be viewed both at the level of a household, as well as of persons living in a household. The CSB has previously published these indicators at the household level, but Eurostat – at the personal level. In order to improve data comparability with other EU Member States and data published by Eurostat, hereinafter in this publication data on material deprivation will be published at the personal level, in line with Eurostat methodology. However, to maintain the time series, data on material deprivation will be available on the CSB homepage both at the household level (like before), as well as at the personal level.

Data collection

Survey method and source data

Material deprivation data are acquired with the help of Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). One of the main study objects of the EU-SILC is annual income of a household – their composition and level.

In order to acquire information four questionnaires were developed: Household Register, Household Questionnaire Form and Individual Questionnaire Form. Each questionnaire has its own aim and information in each questionnaire does not overlap with information in other forms. Fourth form is a module questionnaire that each year aims at researching different theme.

Household Register is questionnaire, which includes general information on each household member. It is mainly demographic information on persons living in the household, as well as on those persons, who have left the household.

Household Questionnaire Form includes questions concerning the household generally. It includes following questions:

  1. housing and housing conditions;
  2. housing costs;
  3. economic situation of the household;
  4. total household income;
  5. inter-household transfers;
  6. agricultural production in household.

Individual Questionnaire Form is filled in on each household member aged 16 and over. It includes questions on:

  1. employment;
  2. income;
  3. education;
  4. health.

Survey is based also on data of the State Revenue Service on natural persons/taxpayers and State Social Insurance Agency data on state pensions and benefits.

Statistical population

The basic unit of EU-SILC survey is persons living in private households. Survey does not include collective households (old peoples’ homes, boarding schools for disabled children, student hostels, hotels, barracks, hospitals, sanatoriums, prisons, etc.).

During the survey information was obtained on whole household as well as on each household member aged 16 and over. Households belonging to longitudinal section are surveyed for several years (maximum 4 years). In Latvia four-year rotation panel is used and all household members, who in the first survey year were at age of at least 14, are sample respondents.

Sample size

Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Sample size of EU-SILC 5 813 6 018 6 717 7 042 7 610 8 151 8 463 8 572 8 510 8 209 8 008
Completed questionnaire sets 3 843 4 315 4 471 5 196 5 797 6 255 6 599 6 499 6 309 6 125 6 113
Individual interviews (persons) 7 913 9 071 9 270 10 910 12 207 12 999 13 503 12 964 12 442 11 929 11 726
11n-response rate 33.9% 28.3% 33.4% 26.2% 23.8% 23.3% 22.0% 24.2% 25.9% 25.4% 23.7%

Statistical processing

Calculation methods

EU-SILC data are extrapolated on all private household and household members living in these households. Weighting process includes application of design weights, which are corrected by actual response rate. Additional data are calibrated by population sex and age.

Data revision

Published data are not revised.

Comparability

Comparability over time

Data are available since 2005.

International comparability

Eurostat

Description of the Eurostat methodology is available from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/methodology

Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat) on its webpage publishes information on material deprivation in EU Member States. It can be found in http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database in section Population and social conditions/ Living conditions and welfare/ Income and living conditions/Material deprivation.

Contact persons on methodology

Name Surname Phone number Position Email
Viktors Veretjanovs 67366609 daļas vadītājs Viktors.Veretjanovs@csb.gov.lv

Last update

24.04.2015

Household budget and household consumption expenditure

Household disposable income

Monetary poverty and income inequality indicators

Number of private households

Explanation of symbols

-

Magnitude zero

0

Less than half of the unit employed

...

Data not available or too uncertain for presentation

X

Figure not applicable because column heading and stub line make entry impossible, absurd or meaningless

.

Data not released for confidentiality reasons

If data are absolute numbers

0

Magnitude zero