Data on hourly and monthly labour costs are used to estimate hourly and monthly labour costs in breakdown by economic activity.


Gross wage or salary covers regular and irregular direct remuneration – basic wage (monthly wage, salary); payments on the time worked or amount of work done; regular and irregular bonuses and premiums, additional payments for overtime work and work on holidays, additional payment before vocation; leave benefit; compensation for unused leave; payments on days not worked – annual and additional leave, payments on other days not worked; statutory social security contributions payable by employees; and sums of income tax. In compliance with the EU Regulations, when compiling data on labour costs, gross wages and salaries include also wage or salary in kind.

Starting from 2009, gross wages and salaries include payment on idle time: till 2008, payment on idle time was included in other labour costs.

Total quarterly (annual) labour costs divided by number of actually worked hours of all employees within a quarter (year).

If compared to annual data quarterly data do not include vocational training costs and recruitment costs; expenditures for work clothes and uniforms as well as other costs not specified yet.

Irregular gross wages and salaries refer to regular monetary payments not made on each payment period: quarterly premiums or bonuses for longer time period, holiday bonuses, payment on leave, leave benefit, compensation for unused leave.

The total labour costs are formed by the employer’s expenditure necessary to employ the staff.

The labour costs include remuneration for the work done both in money (direct remuneration) and in goods and services (wages and salaries in kind); employers’ compulsory and voluntary social contributions paid for the employees; employers’ direct social contributions to employees, as well as other costs arising when employing the workforce. 

In calculations the wage and salary subsidies are subtracted from the labour costs.

Total annual labour costs divided by annual number of employees, converted into full-time units.

Other labour costs include: mandatory state social insurance contributions paid by employer, voluntary social security contributions paid by employer (supplementary pension insurance contributions, health and life insurance contributions, etc.), benefits paid by employer, rewards, gifts, payment of sick-leave certificates A, redundancy benefit, payment for idle standing (until 2008 including), fee for entrepreneurship risk.

Compared to quarterly data, other labour costs over a year include professional training costs, as well as costs related to recruitment, workwear and uniform costs, costs of medical examinations and vaccination needed for work, costs on special food and drinks.

Regular gross wages and salaries refer to regular monetary payments made on each payment period (week, month), including payment on vocation.

Statistical Unit – all economically active enterprises, state and local government institutions, foundations, associations and funds.

Wages and salaries in kind consist of gross payments on goods and services provided free or at reduced prices by employers; those wages and salaries in kind represent an additional income. Wages and salaries in kind include: goods and services for private use; expenditure to provide employees with living space; employer’s expenditure on use of company car for private needs; food vouchers and catering compensations; expenditure to provide kindergarten; payments to cover transportation costs necessary to get to work and back; partial or full payment on cell phone (for work and private needs) bills etc.

Data availability

Dissemination format and Release calendar

Theme Reference period Actual release datesort icon Remarks
Hourly labour costs
  • 2017
Hourly labour costs
  • 2016
Hourly labour costs
  • 2015
Hourly labour costs
  • 2014
Hourly labour costs
  • 2013


Data are compiled, calculated and published by using Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community, Rev. 2 (NACE Rev. 2).

A Classification Catalogue with classification codes and their explanations has been published on the CSB website.

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Customised data sets

If you would like to obtain statistical data that are not available in publications or in the CSB online data base, please send us an information request:
 - postal mail: 1 Lāčplēša Street, Riga, Latvia, LV-1301;
 - e-mail: info [at] csb [dot] gov [dot] lv;
 - visiting Information centre.

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Data collection

Survey method and source data

Data on hourly labour costs are obtained by surveying enterprises, central government institutions, local governments and institutions thereof and institutional units.

Information is acquired by compiling questionnaires developed by the CSB – quarterly statistical reports on activities of merchants, institutions, foundations, associations and funds (2-Labour, 2-Labour-municipalities, 2-Labour (short)), and administrative data.

Statistical report form 2-Labour (short), containing fewer indicators than form 2-Labour, is submitted by individual merchants, foundations, associations and funds employing 7–49 persons. Form 2-Labour-municipalities submitted by local govermments and municipal insitutions. All other statistical units included in the sample submit statistical report form 2-Labour.

Administrative data are acquired with the help of CSB calculations based on the State Revenue Service information from the Report on state social security compulsory payments from employee income, Income Tax and Business Risk State Duty during the reference month, from the Report regarding the employment income, personal income tax and state mandatory social insurance contributions of the payers of the income tax for seasonal farm workers and from Micro-enterprise Tax Declaration.

Information is compiled on all fields. Data by kinds of economic activity are compiled by the main kind of activity which includes also all the other activities of the respondent, except centralized accountancies of the local governments, which submit data separately on following sectors:

  • Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply;
  • Public administration and defence; compulsory social security;
  • Education;
  • Residential care activities;
  • Social work activities without accommodation;
  • Creative, arts and entertainment activities;
  • Libraries, archives, museums and other cultural activities;
  • Cleaning activities.

Statistical population

Target population are all statistical units (state and local government budgetary institutions, state and local government merchants, private commercial companies, individual merchants, peasant and fishermen farms employing 50 persons and more, foundations, associations and funds employing 1 and more persons) economically active in 2017.

Target population of the survey does not include:

  • religious organisations;
  • rural handicraft enterprises;
  • family businesses;
  • natural persons performing economic activity.

Target population does not include also statistical units having NACE Rev. 2 classification economic activity code starting with 97 or 98.

Target population Number of employees
1–6 7–9 10–49 50+
State and local government budgetary institutions full-scope survey
State and local government merchants full-scope survey
Private commercial companies imputed sample survey full-scope survey
Individual merchants imputed sample survey full-scope survey
Peasant and fishermen farms not surveyed full-scope survey
Foundations, associations, funds State and local government foundations (SVTK* code starts with 1 or 2) full-scope survey
(SVTK* code does not start with 1 or 2)
imputed sample survey full-scope survey

*SVTK – CSB Typological Classifier of Statistical Units.

Sample size

Each quarter of 2017 more than 7 thsd respondents are surveyed. Budgetary institutions, businesses with government or local government participation 50% and more and all businesses of the private sector with 50 employees and more are surveyed completely. Other statistical units are surveyed with the help of simple stratified sample, which is carried out in earlier formed stratum by kind of economic activity and size of enterprise (by number of employees).

Target population Sample size Frame %
State and local government budgetary institutions 992 992 100
State and local government merchants 457 457 100
Private commercial companies 5 830 14 677 40
Individual merchants 27 120 23
Peasant and fishermen farms 7 7 100
Foundations, associations, funds 179 397 45
Total 7 492 16 650 45

Sample, regardless all other pre-conditions, includes 1040 general government sector enterprises (institutional sector classification code starts with S13). 

Statistical processing

Calculation methods

Information is obtained from the statistical surveys every quarter. Annual data are obtained summing the information received once in a quarter. The information acquired form the respondents of the sample is summarized with the help of weights given for the each sample unit. Information is compiled in breakdown by main kind of activity.

With an aim to estimate imputations of non-responding and directly not surveyed statistical units and credibility of data acquired by using weights, data are analysed each quarter. Summary indicators are compared with previous periods and administrative data sources.

Hourly labour costs LC in the period t are calculated in the following way:

LCt = TLCt : THt, where

TLCt – total labour costs in the period t;

THt – total hours actually worked in the period t.

Hourly labour costs are calculated separately on each of the following labour cost categories:

  1. hourly labour costs;
  2. wages and salaries;
  3. other labour costs.

Data revision

Quarterly data are revised every quarter from the beginning of the year. Annual data are not revised.


Comparability over time

Data on hourly labour costs are available since 2000.

Starting from the 1st quarter of 2009 data are published in compliance with the new Classification of Economic Activities NACE Rev. 2. To ensure long enough, comparable time series, data on 2005–2008 were re-calculated according to the new revision of the NACE.

International comparability


Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat) compiles and publishes indicators on hourly labour costs on its website. The information is available on the European Union and Eurozone as a whole, as well as, on every country separately. It can be found in section Statistics Database / Population and social conditions / Labour market / Labour costs:


Confidentiality of the information provided by respondents is protected by the Section 17 of the Statistics Law stipulating rights and obligations of the Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia and other state authorities producing official statistics. Read more

Contact person on methodology

Name Surname Phone number Position Email
Lija Luste 67366917 daļas vadītājs

Last update


Average and real monthly wages and salaries

Labour cost indices

Labour costs and their structure

Explanation of symbols


Magnitude zero


Less than half of the unit employed


Data not available or too uncertain for presentation


Figure not applicable because column heading and stub line make entry impossible, absurd or meaningless


Data not released for confidentiality reasons

If data are absolute numbers


Magnitude zero