Underemployed part-time workers account for more than a half


As economic growth has recovered, also demand in the labour market is increasing. Unemployed persons traditionally are the source used to increase the number of employed persons, still besides them there are other population groups considered to be additional labour force. Results of the Labour Force Survey provide information on the persons aged 15–74 that may be potential additional labour force:

  • underemployed part-time workers1;
  • persons seeking work but not immediately available2;
  • persons available to work but not seeking3.

Gradual overcoming of the economic crisis consequences and migration of the labour force has left negative influence on the potential additional labour force.

More beneficial use of the labour force depends on the provision of opportunities for full employment. In 2012, every eleventh (83.2 thousand) employed was working part-time, of which 44.9 thousand persons (53.9%) were underemployed part-time workers. Possibilities of the mentioned employed persons are not fully used in the labour market.

Notable growth in the number of mentioned persons was recorded in 2009, when at the beginning of the economic crisis the number of employed persons diminished, and part of the residents working for public bodies were forced to work part-time (part of the week or day) or to use unpaid leave. It should be mentioned that during the last 2 years the share of underemployed part-time workers has not changed.

In 2012, in the country there were 67 thousand persons available to work but not seeking it. Additionally 6.2 thousand persons were seeking work but were not immediately available. Both mentioned population groupings (73.2 thousand persons) are forming the potential additional labour force, as currently they belong to the inactive population group.

Persons seeking work but not immediately available mainly are encumbered by family conditions, unfinished studies or short-term disability. During the last 5 years the share of such persons in the number of active population has not changed.

Whereas persons available to work but not seeking are mentioning studies, own illness or disability, family reasons as well as the fact that they have been discouraged to find a job as the main reasons for not seeking work. Rapid rise in the share of such persons was recorded in 2009, while the last 2 years indicate a reduction in their number.

Survey data show that in all groups of the potential additional labour force the share of females is higher than one of males.

Changes in indicators to supplement unemployment, 200820124

More information on indicators to supplement unemployment is available in the CSB database and Eurostat database.

It should be considered that only data on 2011 have been recalculated in compliance with the results of the Population and Housing Census.

Prepared by the Employment Statistics Section
Zaiga Priede
Tel. 67366886


Definitions of the indicators to supplement unemployment:

¹ Underemployed part-time workers are persons aged 15–74 working part-time which wish to work additional hours and are available to do so within the next two weeks.

² Persons seeking work but not immediately available are persons aged 15–74 neither employed norunemployed who are actively seeking work during the last 4 weeks, butnot available for work in the next 2 weeks.

³ Persons available to work but not seeking are persons aged 15–74 neither employed nor unemployed who want to work, are available for work in the next 2 weeks but do not seek work.

4Data on 2011 and 2012 have been calculated basing on the population number specified in the Population and Housing Census 2011, while information on 2008–2010 has not been correspondingly recalculated.