According to Central Statistical Bureau (CSB) data, as the number of population in Latvia is continuing to decrease, relation between males and females has not significantly changed since 2000. In the beginning of 2008 53.9% of Latvian population were females and 46.1% - were males (on average, in the beginning of 2007 51.2% of European Union population were females and 48.8% - were males).
However, it must be noted that there were more males under working age than females – they comprised 51.1% (females – 48.9%), but of working age – only 49.2%, over working age – 33.0%.
Population by sex and age in the beginning of 2008
2007. In 2007 life expectancy at birth in Latvia was 71.2 years (in 2000 – 70.7 years), of which for males – 65.8 years (in 2000 – 64.9 years) and for females – 76.5 years (in 2000 – 76.0 years). Even though in recent years birth increase is being observed, natural increase is still negative. Infant mortality is still high. Moreover, in 2007 infant mortality among girls was higher than infant mortality among boys – 9.2 girls per 1,000 live births and 8.3 boys per 1,000 live births, respectively.
Main population mortality causes are diseases of the circulatory system, neoplasms, external causes of mortality. Even though mortality of males from external causes of mortality in 2007, compared to 2006, has decreased by 12.9% (2,461 male has died in 2006 and 2,144 – have died in 2007), it was three times higher than mortality of females (in age group 30-39 years the difference was even five times).
According to Labour Force survey data, in 2007 comparatively high employment rate was observed - 72.5% of males and 64.4% of females in age group 15-64 years were employed (average employment rate in EU was 72.5% for males and 58.3% for females).
Taking into account that only small part of employed (4.3% of males and 7.0% of females) worked part-time, as well as that part of employed worked in more than one job (5.0% of males and 7.0% of females), working week in Latvia is one of the longest in the EU. In the 4th quarter of 2007 a male employed in all jobs (both in main job and in secondary job) on average worked 41.7 hours a week, but female – 39.3 hours a week (in EU countries this indicator in 2007 was 40.9 hours for males and 33.5 hours for females).
In the 1st quarter of 2008 average gross monthly wages and salaries of females were 419 lats (in 2007 – 323 lats) and comprised only 85.5% (in the first quarter of 2007 – 83.9%) of average gross monthly wages and salaries of males. In the first quarter of 2008 average gross monthly wages and salaries of males reached 490 lats (in 2007 – 385 lats). In 2006 females’ wages and salaries in the EU countries comprised 85% of males’ wages and salaries, but in Latvia in the corresponding period – 82.4%. One of the reasons why there is such difference is that females work in sectors and professions where wages and salaries are lower. In the 1st quarter of 2008 the largest difference in gross monthly wages and salaries was in financial intermediation – average gross monthly wages and salaries of females were 873 lats, but of males – 1557 lats.
It must be noted that for females (aged 15-74 years) the education level is higher than for males. Higher education level than basic education was for 70.7% of males and for 76.7% of females. Moreover, the number of females with higher education was 1.6 times higher than of males.
Latvian population aged 15-74 years by attained education level in 2007
0.2 % females and 0.3 % males have not indicated education level
In the beginning of school year 2007/2008 two thirds or 64.4% of total of students were females. The largest ratio of students-females was in health and welfare programmes (87.1%), but in engineering, manufacturing and construction – only 21.2%.
In accordance with State Social Insurance Agency data, average old-age pension paid in 2007 was 121.7 lats for males and it was considerably higher than for females (105.3 lats). In general, old-age pension which was higher than 120 lats was received by 34.7% males old-age pension recipients and only 15.5% females old-age pension recipients.
Also the average unemployment benefit in 2007 was considerably higher for males than for females, and it reached 142.18 lats (85.52 lats for females which is 60% of average unemployment benefit paid to males). It must be mentioned that in 2007 63% of all unemployment benefit recipients were females.
In accordance with survey data on Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC 20061), in 2005 in households where main breadwinner was female disposable income per one person on average was 105.6 lats per month, but in households where main breadwinner was male – 134.3 lats per month.
In accordance with previously mentioned survey data, in 2006 23% of Latvian population (25% of females and 21% of males) were subjected to risk of poverty2. Unfortunately, the risk of poverty even among employed3 females was higher than among males, and in 2006 comprised 12%, compared to 10% of males.
Persons of old-age pension age are subjected to risk of poverty the most. In 2006 risk of poverty for females over 65 years reached 36% which is two times more than for males of the same age group (17%).
1 The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), which is conducted in all EU member countries by applying the same methodology and definitions. In EU-SILC 2006 survey 9.1 thsd respondents aged 16 years and over were surveyed.
2 In all EU member countries poverty risk threshold is calculated in accordance with the methodology of Laeken indicators. Each year this threshold is recalculated.
3 Aged 18 - 64 years.
Prepared by Social Statistics Department
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