On population long-term migration and employment in foreign countries in 2007

25.04.2008

The Central Statistical Bureau (CSB), using the information received form the Citizenship and Migration Board on the number of persons who had declared their place of residence and on persons departed from the country, has compiled the data on long-term migration in Latvia during 2007. Long-term migrants, according to the ANO Recommendations, are persons arriving in a country or administrative territory with purpose to stay for a permanent residence, or to stay for at least one year, or are leaving it to go to other permanent residence.

According to the data of the CSB, previous year in Latvia due to the long-term migration the population reduced by 642 persons, what, if compared to 2006, when the population of Latvia because of this factor decreased by 2451 person, is significantly less.

In 2007 3541 person from 66 countries arrived for the residence in Latvia, and 4183 persons departed for permanent residence in 80 other countries. The external long-term migration of the population in 2000 – 2007 is shown in the graph.

Population long-term migration in 2000 - 2007
(number of persons)


The statistical data on migration show that, in 2007 the share of European Union countries in the external immigration flow was 73.2 %, but in emigration flow - 41.2 %. 27.8 % of all external immigrants in 2007 had the citizenship of Latvia, 46.4 % - citizenship of other EU countries, and 10.6 % had Russian citizenship. 45.0 % of external emigrants had the citizenship of Latvia, 3.9 % - citizenship of other EU countries, 20.5% - citizenship of other countries, of which 14.6 % had Russian citizenship. The rate of Latvia non-citizens among immigrants was 0.8 %, but among emigrants - 30.6 %.

Immigration and emigration by country in 2007
(countries are listed by the migration turnover)


Immigration

Emigration

Migration turnover (immigration + emigration)

Net migration, people

Number of persons

In per cent

Number of persons

In per cent

Number of persons

In per cent

All countries

3541

100

4183

100

7724

100

-642

Of which:

Russia

396

11.2

1414

33.8

1810

23.4

-1018

United Kingdom

599

16.9

393

9.4

992

12.8

206

Germany

234

6.6

449

10.7

683

8.8

-215

Ireland

350

9.9

182

4.4

532

6.9

168

Lithuania

299

8.4

120

2.9

419

5.4

179

Belarus

71

2.0

300

7.2

371

4.8

-229

Bulgaria

287

8.1

18

0.4

305

3.9

269

USA

84

2.4

206

4.9

290

3.8

-122

Ukraine

91

2.6

192

4.6

283

3.7

-101

Estonia

115

3.2

59

1.4

174

2.3

56

Sweden

89

2.5

81

1.9

170

2.2

8

Other countries

926

26.2

769

18.4

1695

22.0

157


In the result of the external migration, 617 children and juveniles aged 14 and younger arrived in Latvia.

Latest characteristic feature of external migration is the migration of underaged children. Already for several years the immigration of children aged 5 years and younger has increased. This trend was more often observed after Latvia accession to the EU. That testifies that, in many cases children of abroad working Latvian people are given for care to family members, who stayed in Latvia, or other relatives. The external long-term migration of the children at mentioned age in 2003 – 2007 is shown in the graph.

External long-term migration of children aged 5 and younger
in 2003 – 2007


In 2007 63.7% of all immigrants were males, but the majority of emigrants were females – 55.4% of the total number of emigrants.

The age specific rates of the immigrants and emigrants are presented in the table.

Age specific rates of immigrants and emigrants in 2007
(as % of total number)

Age group

Immigration

Emigration

Under working age (0-14 years)

29.9

10.5

At working age

63.9

71.8

Above working age

6.2

17.7


As it can bee concluded form the table data, the share of children in the immigration is three times higher than the one in emigration. But there are 7.9 percentage points more emigrants than immigrants among the population at working age. Also among the population at retirement age the share of emigrants is higher.

In 2007 as the result of the population external migration, the ethnic composition of the Latvia population has changed. The number of Latvians in the country has reduced by 342 persons, number of Russians – by 1292, of Belarussians – 192, of Ukrainians – by 166 persons. But due to the migration the number of Bulgarians in the country has increased by 278 persons, of Germans – by 157, of Lithuanians – by 145 persons.

If analyzing the data of 2007 on marital status of external migrants, it can be seen that, the highest share among both immigrants and emigrants is of single, respectively 58.8 % and 42.3 %. The share of married persons among immigrants was 31.5 %, but among emigrants - 39.0 %.

The territorial point of view to migration shows that, Riga has considerably more intensive migration connections to foreign countries than other cities and districts. The share of Riga residents in the total number of Latvia population is slightly more than 32 %, whereas in the external migration of 2007 51.5 % of immigrants chose Riga as their place of residence. Slightly less than a half (47.5 %) of the total number of external immigrants in 2007 was Riga population. 15.7% of all immigrants chose Pieriga region as their place of residence, but 12.5% of the total population emigrated form there, but the region of Latgale was chosen by 11.8% of all external immigrants, respectively, but 17.9 of all emigrants.

When analyzing internal migration of the country, it can be seen that, in 2007 55089 persons changed their permanent residence from one administrative territory to other. Quite typical is a trend to move for life to the capital - Riga, or other central regions of the country. As, for example, in 2007 for life in Riga 1679 persons moved from Zemgale , from Latgale - 1612 persons, from Vidzeme - 1263, from Kurzeme - 1339, and from Pieriga – 3838 persons. 886 persons moved from Riga to Zemgale, 812 to Latgale, 719 – to Vidzeme, 366 - to Kurzeme, and 8882 - to the region of Pieriga.

Total net migration in 2007 was positive only in Jūrmala (474 persons), as well as, in the districts of Riga (6491), Ogre (819), Jelgava (535), Tukums (141) and Aizkraukle (110).

The aim of the most part of the Latvia population going abroad is to find well-salaried job. To find out the volume of economic migration and its characterisation, in 2007 the CSB included additional questions on this subject in the Labour Force Survey, but, when evaluating the results of the survey, it may be concluded that, in the sample survey it is not possible to obtain information on the number of Latvia population employed abroad adequate to the actual situation and to the criterions of the data reliability, but the survey gives partly characterisation of this population.

According to the data of the Labour Force Survey of the CSB, three fifths of the population of our country who in 2007 was working abroad before the departure were employed, each fifth (18.3%) was pupil or student, and each sixth (17.4%) was unemployed.each fifth

Each fifth (19%) who went to work abroad and was employed in Latvia was working in trade, each sixth (16%) - in construction, each seventh (13.8%) - in manufacturing, each tenth (9.8%) was working in the field of agriculture, hunting and forestry, each eleventh (9.4%) – in transport and communications, each fifteenth (6.5%) was employed in the other community, social and personal activities, and almost every twentieth (5.2%) was working in the field of hotels and restaurants.

The number persons, who went abroad to work, in breakdown by occupations, in which they were working in Latvia, is presented in graph.

Persons, who went to work abroad in 2007, by occupations, in which they worked in Latvia


Two thirds (67.1%) of those, who went to work abroad, were urban population, but on third (32.9%) – was rural population.

Most of the people – each fourth (24.5%), who went to work abroad, were from the region of Latgale (it should be noted that, in this region there is the highest share of unemployed in the total number of economically active population - 8.0% in 2007), slightly less (23.5%) from Riga, one sixth (15.7%) form Kurzeme, each eight (12.7) lived in Vidzeme, slightly less (12.4%) lived in Pieriga, each ninth (11.2%) of those, who went to work abroad, lived in Zemgale.

Almost two fifths (39.1%) of all Latvia population employed abroad chose United Kingdom, each third (31.9%) – Ireland, each twentieth (4.9%) was employed in Germany, slightly less (4.5%) – in Norway, 3% worked in Russia, 2.5% - in USA, and 2.4% in Italy.

Prepared by Social Statistics Department
Population Statistics Section

Tel. 67366904
Dzidra Rumpīte

Tel. 67366886
Zaiga Priede